Title: Standards, Certification and Translation Services
1 Standards Certification and Translation Services
Presentation March 2004
Munich Prague Vienna
2 The Translation Market in Austria
70 are one-person businesses
Largest ones have around 15 employees
No market entry barriers anyone can register for a business license and offer translation services
3 The Translation Market in Austria
Membership in Chamber of Commerce obligatory if provider has a business. Business license required if service is provided on a commercial basis i.e. freelancers are exempt if they perform the services themselves (no subcontracting)
Association of university graduates
Association of literary translators
4 Translation Market Trends
Clients expect quality at lower prices and shorter turnaround times
Translation has become a commodity in some segments e.g. localization
Long-term trend growing
Translation standards and certification give translation service providers a competitive advantage
5 What is a Standard
A standard is a document that has been defined in consensus and has been acknowledged by a recognized body. It defines rules guidelines or criteria that apply generally to an activity or the outcome of an activity that can be repeated.
6 What is a Standard
Standards are based on the generally accepted findings of scientific research technology and experience and are conceived to promote the best interests of society in general.
(DIN EN ISO 45014 May 1990)
7 What is Quality
Quality is not an absolute value but varies by
Quality refers to product quality service quality and process quality
8 What is Quality U.S. Post Office Cisco Utah 9 What is Certification
Certification is a process or the outcome of a process which confirms that a company or person complies with the requirements of a standard.
10 Certification is an Investment
The decision to become certified is an investment and like all investments it is a business decision.
Depending on a translation service providers strategy and business goals certification can be a useful tool.
11 Benefits for the Translation Service Provider
The certification process is an opportunity to analyze standardize and make your work processes more efficient
Introduce quality management quality assurance and quality control procedures
12 Overview of Relevant Standards in Europe 13 Overview of Relevant Standards in Europe
1977 ISO 2384 Documentation Presentation of translations
ISO ISO 9000 2000 (now 90012000)
1995 UNI 10574 Definition of services and activities of translation and interpreting enterprises
1998 DIN 2345 Translation Contracts
1999 ÖNORM D 1200 and D 1201
2002 ISO 12616 Translation-oriented terminography
14 1977 ISO 2384 Documentation Presentation of translations
Sets out rules to ensure that translations are presented in a standard form which will simplify their use by different categories of user. Applies to the translation of all documents whether the translation is complete partial or abridged. Four types of translation are discussed.
15 ISO 90002000
Set of international standards for international quality assurance systems
Defines procedures but does not provide a measure of actual quality control
Originally created for military procurement in the 1950s
General abstract system
Certification is mandatory
16 GermanyDIN 2345
DIN 2345 Germany in 1998
Focus on translation process and how the service is to be provided
Organizational aspects quotes contracts delivery forms hardware software subcontracting confidential treatment of documents etc.
Content aspects type of text target audience agreements on terminology support to be provided by client
17 GermanyDIN 2345
No certification only registration
Documentation of all processes
Qualification expected of the persons providing the service
18 Italy UNI 105741996
Definition of service and activities of translation and interpreting enterprises
Scope and field of application
Terms and definitions
Minimum physical structure of enterprise supplier
Indications for the enterprise
19 2002 ISO 12616 Translation-oriented terminography
To help translators work more efficiently
Deals with the recording and presentation of terminological data
20 Europe Union
CEN (Comité Européen de Normalisation) European Committee for Standardization
Work in progress on a standard for translation services
Task Force established CEN/BTTF 138
Work should be completed by 2005
21 EUATC Proposal
EUATC (European Union of Associations of Translation Companies) proposal to CEN
Quality standard for translation services to create a unified Europe-wide quality standard for translation companies
Terms and definitions
Planning and implementing the service product
ÖNORM D 12002000 Translation and interpretation services. Translation services. Requirements for the service and the provision of the service
ÖNORM D 12012000 Translation and interpretation services. Translation services. Translation contracts
23 The Austrian Standard ÖNORM D 12002000 24 The Austrian Standard ÖNORM D 12002000
Provision of the service
Natural or legal person offering or providing translation services
Collective term for all the activities to be performed by the service provider
Provision of the service
Collective term for all the resources used by the service provider to render the service including human technical
Written rendering of a text from a source language to a target language
Oral rendering of a text from a source language to a target language
Any defined set of symbols that may serve as an original and/or as the informational basis for the production of a target text
any set of symbols resulting from a transfer activity that may fulfil a certain purpose for a specific addressee or target group
function to be fulfilled by a text for a specific target group
language(s) in which the source text has been prepared
language(s) into which the source text is to be transferred
language from and to which the service provider translates (e.g. from English to German and vice versa)
language from which the service provider translates (e.g. from English to German but not vice versa)
a target-language sample text that if possible was prepared by a native speaker and ideally represents the text type conventions (lexis idiomaticity text structure etc.) to be taken into account in the production of the target text
a text that provides the factual and textual information (background knowledge) required for understanding the source text and/or for the production of the target text
language with a pre-defined vocabulary and a pre-defined syntax with strict rules for text structure
30 Service requirements Service categories
Transfer shall include all the intellectual and material services required for the production of the target text. Different types of linguistic and cultural transfer are as follows
31 Service requirements Service categories
Documentary translation Follows the wording of the source text and represents the source-language structures by target-language means
32 Service requirements Service categories
Communicative/functional translation Based on the source text and the text type conventions of the target language the target text is worded taking into account previous and background knowledge as well as the linguistic and cultural expectations of the target audience.
33 Service requirements Service categories
Adaptation The source text is adapted according to formal and/or content-related criteria to meet the requirements of the target-text function. The type and extent of adaptation shall be agreed explicitly and shall be identified as such (e.g. expansion or shortening of a text).
34 Service requirements Service categories
Informative translation The information contained in a source text that is of relevance to a specific purpose is summarised in the target text and/or relevant excerpts are translated.
Rewriting Loosely based on the source text the target text is written to fulfil the target-text function.
35 Service requirements Service categories
Updating An existing target text is amended and updated on the basis of current information available in the source or target language in addition to the original source text (e.g. documentation update).
Localisation Linguistic and cultural adaptation and translation of software applications technical descriptions user manuals etc. for local markets.
36 Localization 37 Service requirements Service categories
Internationalisation Adaptation of software products technical descriptions user manuals etc. to permit subsequent localisation.
Technical documentation Production of user-friendly reference texts appropriate to the target group and the target culture (instructions for use repair manuals etc.).
38 Service requirements Service categories
Post-editing of machine translations A machine-translated text is compared with the source text and revised to eliminate errors of meaning and to improve the linguistic quality of the target text in accordance with specified quality parameters.
39 Linguistic parameters
Printable version Target text in compliance with the rules and conventions of the target language and with communicative usage in the target culture with regard to standard and specialised lexis grammar syntax idiomaticity style and other specific characteristics of the text type.
40 Linguistic parameters
Standard version Target text in compliance with the rules and conventions of the target language with regard to lexis grammar syntax and idiomaticity. In terms of specialised language the standard version uses the latest terminology for the subject discussed in the text. A standard version is not suitable for publication in its original form and needs to be reviewed and revised in technical and/or editorial terms if it is to be published.
41 Linguistic parameters
Working version Target text in compliance with the usage rules and conventions of the target language with regard to grammar and syntax. A working version may contain deficiencies of style and idiomaticity and technical terms may be paraphrased. In isolated cases alternatives may be given for terms. A working version is never suitable for publication.
42 Basic qualifications
Translating competence Translating competence includes the ability to professionally translate texts. It also comprises the ability to correctly assess problems of text comprehension and text production as well as the ability to render the target text in accordance with service specifications and to explain the reasons for choices made.
43 Basic qualifications
Linguistic and textual competence in the source language(s) and the target language(s) Linguistic and textual competence includes the ability to understand and use the source language and target languages as appropriate to specific situations. Textual competence requires knowledge of text type conventions for as wide a range of standard-language and specialised texts as possible and includes the ability to apply this knowledge in the production of texts.
44 Linguistic and textual competence 45 Basic qualifications
Research competence information acquisition and processing Research competence includes the ability to efficiently acquire the additional linguistic and specialised knowledge necessary to understand the source text and to produce the target text. It also comprises the ability to acquire implied knowledge to assess ones own knowledge in a self-critical way to eliminate any existing knowledge gaps and to integrate new information with existing knowledge.
46 Research Competence 47 Basic qualifications
Research competence also requires experience in the use of research tools and the ability to develop suitable strategies for the efficient utilisation of the information sources available.
48 Basic qualifications
Cultural competence Cultural competence includes the ability to make use of information about the knowledge base behavioural standards and value systems that characterise the source and target cultures.
49 Cultural competence 50 Basic qualifications
Technical competence Technical competence comprises the abilities and skills required for professional preparation and production of translations. A minimum requirement shall be the ability to use word processing programs and terminology collections.
51 Further training
The service provider shall perfect his/her knowledge
with regard to the basic qualifications in accordance with 4.1.1
with regard to his/her fields of specialisation and specialised languages and
on issues relating to the profession.
Certification according to ÖNORM D 1200
53 Certification according to ÖNORM D 1200
The certification documents conformity with the standard for the active and passive languages that the translation service provider applies for under ÖNORM D 1200
54 Certification according to ÖNORM D 1200
Reference projects for at least three years prior to application.
Applications may be submitted by any person or legal entity.
Re-audit after three years
56 The Audit
Security and confidentiality
Random audit of the documentation of two assignments
57 Example Section 4.1.1Basic qualifications
Evidence of education and further training completed
Presentation of any fields of specialization if given
Documentation of experience
58 Example Section 4.1.1Basic qualifications Translation competence
Production of a translation (for all active and passive languages applied for) in a standard quality version pursuant to 3.1.3 ÖNORM D 1200 the text to be translated will be supplied by the expert auditor. The candidate shall have the right to propose a specialized field prior to the audit.
59 Example Section 4.1.1Basic qualifications Translation competence
Free choice of means of production PC).
Free access to all resources and materials. The source text for the translation to be produced shall have a length of one page with one page being defined as having a minimum of 1500 and a maximum of 1800 characters (including spaces).
60 Example Section 4.1.1Basic qualifications Translation competence
The quality of the translation produced shall comply with the criteria of the standard version pursuant to 3.1.3 ÖNORM D 1200..
61 Example Section 4.1.1Basic qualifications Translation competence
The parameters for the translation shall be defined by the expert auditor regarding
the target audience and
if required the terminology.
62 Example Section 4.1.1Basic qualifications Technical competence
The auditThe examination of the use of terminology collections and the capability of using computer systems (word processing applications).
63 Audit Example Section 4.1.1 Basic qualificationsTechnical competence
Fulfilment criteriaThe translation(s) produced and the reference projects audited show that the candidate is capable of using the required terminology collections and state-of-the-art computer systems for producing translations
a) An expert auditor shall be qualified as a translator pursuant to Section 4.1.1 of ÖNORM D 1200 for the language to be certified
b) The principal occupation of an expert auditor shall be that of an active professional translator
c) An expert auditor shall have at least five years of management experience as an owner or in a managing position of a service provider in the field of translation.
The Certification Body of ON shall have the right to select the expert auditors. The Certification Body shall keep a list of all auditors admitted by ON.
67 The European Translation Standard Work in Progress 68 The European Translation Standard
January 2002 CEN short for Comité Européen de Normalisation (European Committee for Standardization) met and adopted a proposal put forth by the European Union of Associations of Translation Companies (EUATC) as a new project CEN N 1098 Quality systems - Translation companies - Particular requirements for the application of EN ISO 9001
69 The European Translation Standard
The original EUATC proposal discussed at the meeting called for a standard applicable only to translation agencies and companies and after a long debate it was rejected.
70 The Task Force CEN/BTTF 138 Translation Services
December 2002 The Task Force CEN/BTTF 138 Translation Services was established to develop a standard applicable to all providers of translation services regardless of whether they are organized as a company or work as freelance translators.
71 The European Translation Standard
AEONOR (Spanish standards organization was elected Secretariat of the Task Force)
Assignment of project leaders Germany Austria Finland Spain and UK
Procedures in translation services Project leader Spain
Added value services Project leader UK
74 CEN/BTTF 138 Translation Services Business Plan
Standardization of the requirements for the provision of translation services.
procedures in translation services
human resources and their qualifications
75 CEN/BTTF 138 Translation Services
BTTF 138 agrees to develop only one project.
Title Translation services
Stage 32 November 2004
Stage 40 March 2005
Stage 49 November 2005
76 CEN/BTTF 138 Translation Services
Content of the standard
2 Normative references
3 Terms and definitions (Germany)
77 CEN/BTTF 138 Translation Services
4 Basic requirements (Austria)
- human resources
- technical resources
4.2 Quality management (quality of the service not of the translation itself)
4.3 Project management
78 CEN/BTTF 138 Translation Services
5 Client-service provider relationship (Finland)
Rights and duties of provider and client
Determination of project-related requirements
79 CEN/BTTF 138 Translation Services
6 Procedures in translation services (Spain)
6.1.1. Administrative work
6.1.2. Technical work
6.1.3. Linguistic work
6.1.4 Terminology and research
80 CEN/BTTF 138 Translation Services
6.2 Translation process
translation work as the core product
verification/validation (control if product meets all the client requirements including proof reading)
other services provided
81 CEN/BTTF 138 Translation Services
7 Added value services (UK)
Legalisation notarisation etc according to the national requirements
Terminology data base creation and management
82 Added value services 83 CEN/BTTF 138 Translation Services
7 Added value services (UK)
DTP graphic and web design camera-ready artwork
Review and/or revision of translations from third parties
84 CEN/BTTF 138 Translation Services Terms and Definitions
85 CEN/BTTF 138 Translation Services Terms and Definitions
5.3.1 Project Management
Assigning checkers revisers and reviewers. Assigning any other specialists involved in any added-value services for the project.
86 CEN/BTTF 138 Translation Services Terms and Definitions
The reviser shall be a person other than the translator and have the appropriate competence in the source and target languages. The reviser shall examine the translation for its suitability for purpose. This shall include as required by the project comparison of the source and target texts for terminology consistency register and style.
87 CEN/BTTF 138 Translation Services Terms and Definitions
The reviewer shall have domain competence shall carry out a monolingual review to assess the suitability of the final translation for the agreed purpose (e.g. by assessing it for register and to ensure that it respects the conventions of the domain in question).
Translation standards cannot guarantee the quality of the translation itself because it is not a product but an intellectual service.
The creative element in translating cannot be accounted for in a standard.
91 Topics for Discussion
Market interests always play a role in any process that strives to limit access regardless of the arguments.
The integrity of the expert auditors conducting the certification.
92 Documents and Websites
EU Commission Evaluation of the economic and social impact of multilingualism in Europe ASSIM Study Final Report Initial Study - Executive Summary PowerPoint Presentation available at http//europa.eu.int/comm/information_society/eval uation/pdf/report2mlis_en.pdf
Presentation by Deborah Fry of FryBonthrone (in German only) www.fb-partners.com
93 Documents and Websites
Website of the European European Committee for Standardization) www.cenorm.be
Certification Guideline for ON D1200. Write to peter.jonas_at_onorm.at
Order the Austrian standards ON D1200 and ON D1201 at peter.jonas_at_onorm.at
Information brochure on the ON D1200 and ON D1201 standards published by the Austrian Standards Institute (www.on-norm.at) (in German only) Write to peter.jonas_at_onorm.at.
94 Edith Vanghelof camels_at_camels.at
Send me an e-mail to receive any documents available electronically.
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