Reading is one of the four basic skills needed to gain competence in mastering a language.
It is a written receptive skill.
To achieve full comprehension and interaction between the information given and the readers expectations is necessary.
3 2. Reasons for reading and text selection
The ability to read effectively is fundamental for survival in our western society.
Whenever we read we have a specific purpose in mind.
Sometimes we read simply to get the gist of the text or to locate a concrete piece of information.
4 2.2. Reasons for reading and text selection 5 2.2. Reasons for reading and text selection 6 2.2. Reasons for reading and text selection
Texts should be adapted to the learners cognitive development.
Texts should cover a wide variety of topics in order to reflect the diversity of interests present in the classroom.
Texts should enhance motivation and promote self-esteem.
7 2.2. Reasons for reading and text selection
Texts should reflect situations where the learner can activate his/her schemata and enrich the interpretation.
Texts should introduce some of the most important cultural references of the target language.
The selected texts should be the result of a needs analysis.
By means of a needs analysis the teacher can gather a great deal of valuable information which will result in a more accurate selection of the reading material.
8 2.3. Types of knowledge required to make sense of the text
Six types of knowledge likely to help the reader to make sense of the text
9 3. CHARACTERISTICS OF WRITTEN LANGUAGE
Differences in comparison to spoken language.
10 4. APPROACHES TO READING IN A FOREIGN/SECOND LANGUAGE
4.1. Bottom-up process Based upon the assumption that the reader starts from decoding the most specific levels of the language before grasping the most general ones.
The reader first recognises individual letters forms words these in turn make up phrases then clauses sentences texts
Later on he/she makes use of his/her linguistic mechanisms to make some sort of sense of the data.
11 4. APPROACHES TO READING IN A FOREIGN/SECOND LANGUAGE
Numerous activities to develop the learners bottom-up strategies and subsequently allow him/her to process the text in this way.
a) Identifying words by letter combinations
b) Difficult sound clusters
c) Re-ordering scrambled words and matching
d) Discriminating minimal pair sounds
e) Reading and stress
12 4. APPROACHES TO READING IN A FOREIGN/SECOND LANGUAGE
4.2. Top-down process
The process starts from the higher levels of processing and proceeds to use the lower levels selectively.
Background knowledge plays a key role since the reader combines what he/she already knows with the new information from the text to achieve a personal interpretation.
13 4. APPROACHES TO READING IN A FOREIGN/SECOND LANGUAGE
a) Deducing from context.
Can you deduce from context the meaning of resort hike and sunbathers Are these words essential for the comprehension of the passage Why
What a marvellous coastline! This is an excellent resort for a holiday. People can hike on the rocky hills and if they want to they can swim or do water sports in the blue sea. A holiday here suits those visitors who like the mountains and those who like the beach. There is plenty of vegetation on the hills and a small sandy beach for sunbathers! 14 4. APPROACHES TO READING IN A FOREIGN/SECOND LANGUAGE
b) Relating written text to general world knowledge.
Relate his/her world knowledge or background knowledge to the written information from the text.
c) Drawing inferences.
The reader not only needs to understand explicitly stated information but also implicit messages.
15 4. APPROACHES TO READING IN A FOREIGN/SECOND LANGUAGE
4.3. Interactive process
Eclectic approach The reader depending on his/her purposes the type of text etc. activates different strategies which shift from bottom-up to top-down and vice-versa. This has come to be known as interactive reading.
16 5. COMMON EUROPEAN FRAMEWORK OF REFERENCE FOR LANGUAGES THE READING SKILL 17 5. COMMON EUROPEAN FRAMEWORK OF REFERENCE FOR LANGUAGES THE READING SKILL 18 5. COMMON EUROPEAN FRAMEWORK OF REFERENCE FOR LANGUAGES THE READING SKILL 19 6. STYLES OF READING APPLICABLE TO THE READING CLASS
Reading aloud or reading silently.
20 6.1. Reading Aloud
In the first years of Primary education storytelling plays an important role in the process of learning.
More effective if the story is told (or read) aloud due to the fact that learners become more involved and consequently more motivated.
Students can show that they recognise written and spoken forms and the relationship between form and meaning.
At early and intermediate levels it can be used to check bottom-up processing skills or simply pronunciation.
21 6.1. Reading Aloud
It is not a very authentic activity.
It is a boring activity because while one student is reading the others can easily lose attention.
It is not an interactive activity because students only have to recite.
22 6.2. Silent Reading
The most common and natural type of reading.
Different goals can be pursued depending on the predetermined purpose of reading
23 6.2. Silent Reading
6.2.1. Scanning Search of specific information within a text relevant dates numbers in a directory times on a timetable or key concepts in an academic text.
Very common in everyday life used to get a global impression of the content of a text (the gist of the text).
Requires a definite reading competence because it implies an overall view of the text.
Develops students self-confidence since they obtain a lot of information without needing much reading.
24 6.2.3. Intensive
Focuses on linguistic and content accuracy.
It is very important in some educational contexts because it is used to exemplify different aspects of the lexical syntactic and discourse systems.
Full understanding of the literal meaning presented in the written passage.
25 6.2.4. Extensive
Oriented towards grasping a general understanding of the text for the purpose of enjoyment or learning.
Texts are usually long such as books or articles and reading them takes extended periods of time.
Extensive reading is not usually performed during class time but it is known that this activity helps students to improve their reading abilities.
26 7. AN EXTENSIVE READING PROGRAMME FOR CHILDREN
7.1. Goals for an extensive reading programme
Take into account institutional goals and expectations for learning (students goals language abilities L1 and L2 reading experiences students motivations and attitudes toward reading in general and particular goals of the curriculum).
Plan reading curricula in relation to specific goals (hours of instruction per week available resources etc.) topics texts and tasks.
Curriculum 27 7. AN EXTENSIVE READING PROGRAMME FOR CHILDREN
Select appropriate text materials and supporting resources according to levels of difficulty.
Diversify students reading experiences (reading in different places class lab library or home reading for different purposes).
28 7. AN EXTENSIVE READING PROGRAMME FOR CHILDREN
Work with texts within a pre- during- and post-reading framework.
Recognise the complex nature of reading through meaningful instructions (vocabulary development careful reading of the texts awareness of text structure and discourse organisation the use of graphic organisers to support comprehension strategic reading student motivation and integrated-skills tasks).
29 7.2 Types of texts
Authentic texts refer to readings which have not been adapted or modified in any way for teaching purposes.
Pedagogic texts are readings that have been especially written for the language classroom
Adapted texts or Graded Readers aim to facilitate the language and content of the text in order to make it more accessible to the language learner.
30 7.3. Materials
7.4. Chart for keeping track of students readings
31 8. TASKS TO DEVELOP READING SKILLS
8.1. Tasks before reading.
To introduce the topic of reading and to activate schemata that is previous world knowledge.
The teacher may also decide to introduce the structural items (vocabulary discourse markers)
32 8.1. Tasks before reading
Five main goals of pre-reading instruction
it enables the reader to access background knowledge
it stimulates student interest
it provides specific information needed for successful comprehension
it sets up student expectations
it models strategies that students can use later on their own
33 8.1. Tasks before reading 34 8.2. Tasks during reading 35 8.3. Tasks after reading
Post-reading instruction extends ideas and information contained in the text. It also focuses on ensuring that the main ideas have been perfectly grasped and understood.
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