In the end all learners need your energy your heart and your mind. They have that in common because they are young humans. How they need you however differs. Unless we understand and respond to those differences we fail many learners.
Tomlinson C.A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed ability classrooms (2nd Ed.). Alexandria VA ASCD.
StudentsFirst Successs for All Conference
Kennesaw State University
Tuesday November 15 2005
2 (No Transcript) 3 (No Transcript) 4
The biggest mistake of past centuries in teaching has been to treat all children as if they were variants of the same individual and thus to feel justified in teaching them all the same subjects in the same way.
5 Differentiation is a Way of Thinking About Teaching and Learning 6 Dear Miss Brin Yesterday you got really really mad at me in class. I didnt argue with you because that just makes you madder and being yelled at makes my stomach feel funny and I cant think. But I want to say what happened. Maybe you will understand why it looks like I dont pay attention in class. You told us to open our books to chapter 4 and read silently. Then you asked everyone to put your hand up if we had finished the third page and Sean didnt. You waited for him to finish the page. Then you told us to take turns reading out loud. When you got to me I asked you what paragraph to start on and you started yelling at me. You asked me a lot of questions but you didnt let me answer any of them. You answered them yourself but the things you said werent true answers! This is what happened. I started reading when you said. I finished the chapter and stopped because you get mad if I read any more. I didnt get out another book because that makes you mad too. I didnt doodle or do math or talk to Sarah or get up or walk around because those things make you mad. So I worked on my greek in my head until you called on me. 7
I tried to keep track of where the other kids were when they were reading. And I had the right page. I just didnt hear where Kim stopped. Her voice is sooo quiet and the verb I was saying was too loud in my head! So its not true that I was day dreaming! And Im not stuck up or arrogant or insolent or any of the things you said I was! I TRY to follow along but I CANT read that slow!!
You said you got mad because I was wasting everybodies time. But I just asked which paragraph Miss Brin Look at your watch and say it too. It takes 2 seconds. You could have said the third paragraph. That takes 21 seconds. I timed it too. Then Sarah and Amy R and Amy B would have 6 minutes to read aloud. Instead you yelled at ME for 6 minutes and they did not get to read any thing!
Peter takes almost a whole minute to read Ben heard the bear cough behind him. I timed him. Its a game I made up to pay attention instead of doing Greek or making up poems in my head. If I ask you what paragraph and you tell me it still takes me less than half a minute for me to read a whole paragraph. So I guess I dont understand why you are mad or why you used 6 minutes to tell the class what a bad stupid mean person i am because I wasted their time for 4 seconds. I think YOU wasted their time!!! And I think YOU were mean to call me those names in front of everybody!!!!
Miss Brinn I want to do what you tell me! I dont understand why I cant keep reading at the end of a chapter. Or get out my other books. or study my greek. Or draw or doodle or write in my journal. But you dont want me to do that so I dont. But I cant sit and stare at the wall. If i try to do that I just start thinking about something else! I dont know HOW to not think! I dont know HOW to read slow! Please tell me what to do so it wont make you mad at me all the time. And PLEASE dont yell at me in class.
your sad student
9 I know its been a long time since you heard from me. I wanted to let you know what I am doing now and that I think of you often even though I have not been a particularly faithful correspondent. When you last saw me you must have had some doubt about what I might do with my life. The interesting thing though is that if you did have doubts you never let me know about them. You treated me as though I had all the possibilities in the world in my hands. The fact that I could not pass a vocabulary test seemed incidental to you. What mattered was what I could do. I didnt get that at the time. I was too exhausted from years of lugging around my disabilities. You need to know that I will be receiving a Masters Degree in just a few days. My mom asked who I wanted to know about that from back home. You need to know. Your belief in me when I had no belief in myself opened the door that led here. . . R.G. . 10 Understood Betsy Elizabeth Ann fell back on the bench with her mouth open. She felt really dizzy. What crazy things the teacher said! She felt as though she was being pulled limb from limb. Whats the matter asked the teacher seeing her bewildered face. Why why said Elizabeth Ann I dont know what I am at all. If Im second grade arithmetic and seventh grade reading and third grade spelling what grade am I The teacher laughed. You arent any grade at all no matter where you are in school. Youre just yourself arent you What difference does it make what grade youre in And whats the use of your reading little baby things too easy for you just because you dont know your multiplication table 11 Appalachian Trail South end of Hundred Mile Wilderness Warning!!! 12 Where Do I BeginStart small but start! First Steps
Who will help or support you ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ __________ _________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Leaps
13 Differentiated Instruction Defined
Differentiated instruction is a teaching philosophy based on the premise that teachers should adapt instruction to student differences. Rather than marching students through the curriculum lockstep teachers should modify their instruction to meet students varying readiness levels learning preferences and interests. Therefore the teacher proactively plans a variety of ways to get at and express learning.
Carol Ann Tomlinson
14 Differentiation Is a teachers response to learners needs Guided by general principles of differentiation Respectful tasks Flexible grouping Continual assessment Teachers Can Differentiate Through Environment Content Product Process According to Students Readiness Interest Learning Profile Through a range of strategies such as Multiple intelligencesJigsaw4MATGraphic OrganizersRAFTS CompactingTiered assignmentsLeveled textsComplex Instruction Learning Centers 15 Think of DIFFERENTIATION as the lens you look through when using any materials programs or instructional strategies. If you have high quality curriculum and materials then it isnt so much WHAT you use as it is HOW you use it to meet the varying readiness interests and learning profiles of your students. 16 Differentiation must be an extension of not a replacement for high quality curriculum. 17 What Differentiated Instruction
Chaotic or new
Just another way to provide homogenous instruction (You DO use flexible grouping instead)
Just modifying grading systems and reducing work loads
More work for the good students and less and different for the poor students
Differentiated instruction is more QUALITATIVE than quantitative.
Differentiated instruction provides MULTIPLE approaches to content process and product.
Differentiated instruction is STUDENT CENTERED.
Differentiated instruction is a BLEND of whole class group and individual instruction.
Differentiated instruction is ORGANIC.
18 Unlocking the Meaning of Differentiation Affirmation Contribution Power Purpose Challenge The Student Seeks Important Focused Engaging Demanding Scaffolded Curriculum and Instruction are the Vehicle The Teacher Responds Invitation Opportunity Investment Persistence Refl ection Carol Tomlinson 2002 19
Differentiation is not so much the stuff as the how. If the stuff is ill conceived the how is doomed.
Carol Ann Tomlinson
20 (No Transcript) 21 RESPECTFUL TASKS
Respectful tasks recognize student learning differences. The teacher continually tries to understand what individual students need to learn most effectively. A respectful task honors both the commonalities and differences of students but not by treating them all alike.
A respectful task offers all students the opportunity to explore essential understandings and skills at degrees of difficulty that escalate consistently as they develop their understanding and skill.
22 (No Transcript) 23 KNOW (facts vocabulary dates rules people etc.) ecosystem elements of culture (housing/shelter customs values geography) UNDERSTAND (complete sentence statement of truth or insight want students to understand that . . . ) All parts of an ecosystem affect all others parts. Culture shapes people and people shape culture. DO (Basic skills thinking skills social skills skills of the discipline planning skills --- verbs) Write a unified paragraph Compare and contrast Draw conclusions Examine varied perspectives Work collaboratively Develop a timeline Use maps as data Tomlinson 02 24 (No Transcript) 25 (No Transcript) 26 -CHOICE-The Great Motivator!
Requires children to be aware of their own readiness interests and learning profiles.
Students have choices provided by the teacher. (YOU are still in charge of crafting challenging opportunities for all kiddos NO taking the easy way out!)
Use choice across the curriculum writing topics content writing prompts self-selected reading contract menus math problems spelling words product and assessment options seating group arrangement ETC . . .
GUARANTEES BUY-IN AND ENTHUSIASM FOR LEARNING!
27 Learning Profile Factors Learning Environment quiet/noise warm/cool still/ mobile flexible/fixed busy/spare Group Orientation independent/self orientation group/peer orientation adult orientation combination Gender Culture Intelligence Preference analytic practical creati ve verbal/linguistic logical/mathematical spatial/ visual bodily/kinesthetic musical/rhythmic interpe rsonal intrapersonal naturalist existential Cognitive Style Creative/conforming Essence/facts Expressive/controlled Nonlinear/linear Inductive/ deductive People-oriented/task or Object oriented Concrete/abstract Collaboration/competiti on Interpersonal/introspective Easily distracted/long Attention span Group achievement/personal achievement Oral/visual/kines thetic Reflective/action-oriented 28 Differentiation According to Sternbergs Intelligences Tall Tales Grade 3
Know What makes a Tall Tale
Definition of fact and exaggeration
Understand An exaggeration starts with a fact and stretches it.
People sometimes exaggerate to make their stories or deeds seem more wonderful or scarier.
Do Distinguish fact and exaggeration
Listen to or read Johnny Appleseed and complete
the organizer as you do.
Think of a time when you or someone you know was sort of like the Johnny Appleseed story and told a tall tale about something that happened. Write or draw both the factual or true version of the story and the tall tale version.
Creative Task --- RAFT Assignment
Role Audience Format Topic
Someone Our Diary entry Let me tell you
in our class class what happened while Johnny A. and I were on the way to school today.
Johnny Appleseeds Facts Exaggerations 29 Assessment in a Differentiated Classroom
Assessment drives instruction. (Assessment information helps the teacher map next steps for varied learners and the class as a whole.)
Assessment occurs consistently as the unit begins throughout the unit and as the unit ends. (Pre-assessment formative and summative assessment are regular parts of the teaching/learning cycle.)
Teachers assess student readiness interest and learning profile.
Assessments are part of teaching for success.
Assessment information helps students chart and contribute to their own growth.
Assessment MAY be differentiated.
Assessment information is more useful to the teacher than grades.
Assessment is more focused on personal growth than on peer competition.
30 A Few Routes to READINESS DIFFERENTIATION
Varied texts by reading level
Varied supplementary materials
Tiered tasks and procedures
Flexible time use
Small group instruction
Tiered or scaffolded assessment
Negotiated criteria for quality
Varied graphic organizers
31 Character Map Character Name____________ How the character looks ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ _ How the character thinks or acts ____________ ____ ________ ____________ ____________ ____________ Most important thing to know about the character ________________________________________ __________________________________________________ _________________________ 32 Character Map Character Name____________ What the character says or does ____________ _____ _______ ____________ ____________ ____________ ___ _________ What the character really MEANS to say or do ____________ ____________ ____________ ________ ____ ____________ What the character would mostly like us to know about him or her _________________________________ __________________________________________________ __ 33 Character Map Character Name____________ Clues the author gives us about the character ____________ ____________ ____________ _ ___________ Why the author gives THESE clues ____________ ____ ________ ____________ ____________ ____________ The authors bottom line about this character __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __ 34 (No Transcript) 35 Ways to Differentiate Content
Reading Partners / Reading Buddies
Parallel Reading with Teacher Prompt
Choral Reading/Antiphonal Reading
Split Journals (Double Entry Triple Entry)
Books on Tape
Highlights on Tape
Digests/ Cliff Notes
Varied Supplementary Materials
36 FRIENDSHIPS Shape up! Reading Contract Choose an activity from each shape group. Cut out your three choices and glue them Below. You are responsible for finishing these activities by _________. Have fun! This contract belongs to _________________________ ____________ 37 Make a poster advertising yourself as a good friend. Use words and pictures to help make people want to be your friend. Make sure your name is an important part of the poster Make a two sided circle-rama. Use it to tell people what makes you a good friend. Use pictures and words and make sure your name is an important part of the display Make a mobile that shows what makes you a good friend. Use pictures and words to hang on your mobile. Write your name on the top of the mobile in beautiful letters. Get with a friend and make a puppet show about a problem and the solution in your book Get with a friend and act out a problem and its solution from your book Meet with me and tell me about a problem and its solution from the story. Then tell me about a problem you have had and how you solved it Draw a picture of a problem in the story. Then use words to tell about the problem and how the characters solved their problem Write a letter to one of the characters in your book. Tell them about a problem you have. Then have them write back with a solution to your problem. Think about another problem one of the characters in your book might have. Write a new story for the book about the problem and tell how it was solved. 38 Ways to Differentiate Product
Choices based on readiness interest and learning profile
39 Possible Products
Book List Calendar Coloring Book Game Research Project TV Show Song Dictionary Film Collection Tr ial Machine Book Mural Award Recipe Test Puzzle Model Timeline Toy Article Diary Poster Mag azine Computer Program Photographs Terrarium Petit ion Drive Teaching Lesson Prototype Speech Club Ca rtoon Biography Review Invention 40 Mrs. Mutner liked to go over a few of her rules on the first day of class 41 Best Practices forStandards-based InstructionBest Practice New Standards for Teaching and Learning in Americas SchoolsZemelman S. Daniels H. Hyde A. (1998). Portsmouth NHHeinemann
Student Voice and Involvement
Balanced with teacher-chosen and teacher-directed activities
Students often select inquiry topics books writing topics etc.
Students maintain their own records set goals and self-assess
Some themes / inquiries are built from students
Students assume responsibility and take roles
in decision making
42 (No Transcript) 43 From Attache Magazine 44 A Typical Day in a D.I. Class
predictable not rigid schedule
blocks of time for units of study
procedures defined and in place
students assuming responsibility
voice and choice for students
a variety of materials are in use
flexible grouping occurs regularly
daily reflection on learning
regular community gatherings
(for fun and problem solving)
45 (No Transcript) 46 FLEXIBLE GROUPING
Should be purposeful
may be based on student interest learning profile and/or readiness
may be based on needs observed during learning times
geared to accomplish curricular goals (K-U-D)
purposefully plan using information collected interest surveys learning profile inventories exit cards quick writes observations etc.
list groups on an overhead place in folders or mailboxes
on the fly as invitational groups
avoid turning groups into tracking situations
provide opportunities for students to work within a variety of groups
practice moving into group situations and asuming roles within the group
47 Round the Clock Learning Buddies My Appointment Clock Make an appointment with 12 different people one for each hour on the clock. Be sure you both record the appointment on your clocks. Only make the appointment if there is an open slot at that hour on both of your clocks. Tape this paper inside a notebook or to something that you will bring to class each day. 48 Anchor ActivitiesWhat Do I Do If I Finish Early
Work on independent study of your choice
Play a math or language game
Find out how to say your spelling words in another language
Practice ACT / SAT cards
Solve a challenge puzzle with write it up
Get a jump on homework
Use your imagination and creativity to challenge yourself!
Read comics letters books encyclopedia poetry etc.
Write a letter poetry in your Writers Notebook a story a comic etc.
Practice your cursive or calligraphy
Help someone else
Create math story problems or puzzles
49 10 Strategies for Managing a Differentiated Classroom
Have a strong rationale for differentiating instruction based on student readiness interest and learning profile.
Begin differentiating at a pace that is comfortable for you.
Time differentiated activities for student success.
Use an anchor activity to free you up to focus your attention on your students.
Create and deliver instructions carefully.
50 10 Strategies for Managing a Differentiated Classroom
Have a home base for students.
Be sure students have a plan for getting help when you are busy with another student or group.
Give your students as much responsibility for their learning as possible.
Engage your students in talking about classroom procedures and group processes.
Use flexible grouping.
Students in a differentiated classroom do not need to work the system . . . . .
because the system works for them!
52 Remember to think of DIFFERENTIATION as the lens you look through when using any materials programs or instructional strategies. How will you use what you learn about today to differentiate for YOUR students 53 Ask yourself . . . .
54 A Game Plan for Differentiation 1. Sharpen the curriculum
2. Assess the students
Pre-assessments for Readiness
Learning Preference Surveys
55 3. Design instruction
Map the content process and product
Whole class small group individual (flexible grouping)
4. Match tasks to learner need
Adjust for Readiness interest learning profile
Align with KUD
56 5. Bring the students on board
Establish routines and procedures
Focus on shared decision-making
6. Reflect and refine
Keep the loop going
Adapted from C. Tomlinson 57 Begin Slowly Just Begin! 58 OPTIONS FOR DIFFERENTIATION OF INSTRUCTION To Differentiate Instruction By Readiness To Differentiate Instruction By Interest To Differentiate Instruction by Learning Profile CA Tomlinson UVa 97 59 (No Transcript) 60 (No Transcript) 61 (No Transcript) 62 Where are you on the continuum of DIFFERENTIATION
What will it take for you to move
What roadblocks are in your way
How can you remove them
63 My teacherdid not careas much aboutpage 51as she didaboutME! S. Kronos 64
Whatever it Takes! 65 Where Do I BeginStart small but start! First Steps
Who will help or support you ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ __________ _________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Leaps
66 Suggested Resources Related to Differentiated Instruction ASCD.org Educational Leadership magazine ASCD video series Brandt Ron (1998) Powerful Learning. Alexandria VA Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Coope r J. David (2000). Literacy Helping Children Construct Meaning Fourth Edition. Boston MA Houghton Mifflin Co. Cummings Carol (2000). Winning Strategies for Classroom Management. Alexandria VA Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Erickson H. Lynn (1998). Concept-Based Curriculum and Instruction Teaching Beyond the Facts. Thousand Oaks CA Corwin Press Inc. Erickson H. Lynn (2001). Stirring the Head Heart and Soul Second Edition. Thousand Oaks CA Corwin Press Inc. Gibbs Jeanne (1995). Tribes A New Way of Learning and Being Together. Sausalito California Center Source Systems Jensen Eric (1998). Teaching With the Brain in Mind. Alexandria VA Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Keene Ellin Oliver Zimmerman Susan (1997). Mosaic of Thought Teaching Comprehension in a Readers Workshop. Portsmouth NH Heinemann Levine Mel (2002). A Mind at a Time. New York Simon and Schuster. Marzano Robert J. (2000). Transforming Classroom Grading. Alexandria VA Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Marzano Robert J. Pickering Debra J. Pollock Jane E. (2001). Classroom Instruction That Works Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Alexandria VA Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Silver Harvey Strong Richard W. Perini Matthew J. (2000). So Each May Learn Integrating Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences. Alexandria VA Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 67 Reeves Douglas B. (2004). Accountability for Learning How Teachers and Leaders Can Take Charge. Alexandria VA Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Sternberg Robert. (1998). Successful Intelligence How Practical and Creative Intelligence Determine Success in Life. Stiggins Richard J. (1997). Student-Centered Classroom Assessment Second Edition. New Jersey Prentice-Hall Inc. Strachota B. (1996). On Their Side Helping Children Take Charge of Their Learning. Greenfield MA Northeast Society for Children. Stronge James H. (2002) Qualities of Effective Teachers Alexandria VA Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Tomlinson C. (1996). Differentiating Instruction for Mixed Ability Classrooms A Professional Inquiry Kit. Alexandria VA Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Tomlinson C. (1999). The Differentiated Classroom Responding to the Needs of All Learners. Alexandria VA Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Tomlinson C. Allan Susan D. (2000). Leadership for Differentiating Schools and Classrooms. Alexandria VA Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Tomlinson C. Eidson Caroline Cunningham (2003). Differentiation in Practice A Resource Guide for Differentiating Curriculum Grades K-5. Alexandria VA Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Tomlinson C. (2003). Fulfilling the Promise of the Differentiated Classroom Strategies and Tools for Responsive Teaching. Alexandria VA Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Wiggins Grant McTighe Jay (1998. Understanding By Design. Alexandria VA Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Winebrenner S. (2001). Teaching Gifted Kids in the Regular Classroom (revised expanded updated edition). Minneapolis MN Free Spirit. Winebrenner S. (1996). Teaching Kids With Learning Difficulties in the Regular Classroom. Minneapolis MN Free Spirit.
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