1 The Human Reproductive System 2 Male Reproductive System urinary bladder seminal vesicles prostate gland urethra penis rectum epididymis Cowpers gland testis/testes vas deferens scrotum 3 Male Reproductive System (frontal view) See p. 62 in Review book 4 Male Reproductive System
Scrotum sac of skin that holds testes. Hangs below body to keep testes cool. Sperm cannot be produced if body is too warm. Testes move into scrotum just before birth.
Testis/testes male gonads. Made up of small coiled tubes seminiferous tubules. 300-600 per testis. Immature sperm made here.
5 Male Reproductive System
Epididymis storage area in upper rear of testis. Immature sperm move here to mature takes 18 hours.
Vas deferens tube that leads upwards from each testis into lower part of abdomen from epididymis.
Cowpers gland produces fluids that nourish sperm and protect them from the acidity of female.
Combination of sperm and fluids - semen
6 Male Reproductive System
6. Rectum holds wastes
7. Seminal vesicles same job as Cowpers gland
8. Urinary bladder stores urine
9. Prostate gland same job as Cowpers gland and seminal vesicles
10. Urethra passageway for excretion of urine and for sperm to leave body. Vas deferens empties into urethra
7 Male Reproductive System
11. Penis male reproductive organ. Facilitates internal fertilization
Ejaculation muscular contractions force semen through urethra. Before during and after ejaculation reflex actions keep outlet of bladder closed
8 Hormones and Negative Feedback in Males
Negative Feedback change that leads to a response that causes something to counteract that change
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) stimulates testes to produce testosterone
Testosterone stimulates development of sperm. Once there is a large number of sperm puberty is complete.
9 Hormone Negative Feedback System 10
What is the effect of high levels of LH
Testosterone is produced
What is the effect of high levels of testosterone
Slows production of LH which in turn slows production of testosterone
What is the overall outcome of this on-off negative feedback system involving LH and testosterone
Nearly constant level of both hormones - homeostasis
11 Another Way of Looking at Negative Feedback in the Male Reproductive System Brain Pituitary gland Male Reproductive Organs target cells receptor cells LH stimulates the testes cells 12 Male Reproductive System and Hormones
Explain how LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone.
Circulates in the blood- reaches the testes target cells stimulates them to produce testosterone
What happens when the levels of testosterone are too high in the body
LH level drops
What is negative feedback and how does it maintain homeostasis
Change in conditions triggers response in body to counteract that condition. Keeps hormones in balance
13 Female Reproductive System oviduct ovary Urinary bladder uterus urethra rectum cervix vagina 14 Female Reproductive System (frontal view) See p. 61 in Review book 15 Female Reproductive System
Follicles each ovary contains 200000 egg sacs called follicles. In each follicle is an immature egg.
All the eggs are present at birth. During the womans lifetime 500 eggs mature
When an egg matures follicle moves to surface of ovary.
Follicle breaks releases the egg ovulation
Egg can be fertilized for about 24 hours after ovulation
17 Female Reproductive System
2. Oviduct (fallopian tube) Each ovary is near but not connected to oviduct. Tube with funnel-like opening. Cilia line it to create a current that draws the egg into the tube. Egg is fertilized in the oviduct
3. Uterus thick muscular pear-shaped organ. Once egg is fertilized it finishes its development in uterus attached to uterine wall
18 Female Reproductive System
4. Urinary bladder storage of urine
5. Urethra passage of urine to outside of body
6. Vagina (birth canal) leads to outside of body
7. Cervix narrow neck of uterus
8. Rectum passage for wastes
19 The Menstrual Cycle
What is the menstrual cycle
Cycle during which an egg develops and is released from the ovary and the uterus is prepared to receive a fertilized egg
Menarche first menstrual period usually occurs between 11 and 12
Menopause time when a woman stops menstruating usually between 45 55 and is no longer able to conceive.
20 The Menstrual Cycle 21 The Menstrual Cycle
1. Menstruation Loss of egg and uterine tissue via vagina if fertilization does not occur
2. Follicle Stage (follicular stage) lasts 10 days FSH LH levels increase egg matures follicle secretes estrogen to prepare uterus
22 The Menstrual Cycle
3. Ovulation High level of estrogen detected by hypothalamus increased LH decreased FSH follicle bursts egg released
4. Corpus Luteum Stage (Luteal Phase) LH converts follicle to corpus luteum secretes estrogen progesterone. Progesterone prepares uterus. Increased progesterone keeps LH FSH low
23 Another Way of Looking at Negative Feedback in the Female Reproductive System (Hormones of the Menstrual Cycle) Brain Pituitary gland FSH (causes egg to mature in follicle) LH (causes to egg to be let go ovulation) ovary Estrogen (causes uterine lining to thicken build up to prepare for egg) uterus Progesterone (helps maintain uterine lining) 24 Hormones of Menstrual Cycle
What happens if fertilization occurs
Corpus luteum keeps producing progesterone to maintain pregnancy. After 5 weeks the embryo produces progesterone this inhibits LH FSH so no menstrual cycle
What happens if fertilization does not occur
There is no implantation the corpus luteum breaks down. Progesterone level drops uterine lining breaks down menstruation.
FSH LH are produced again new cycle
Average Menstrual Cycle is 28 days long
25 Ovulation to Implantation oviduct uterus egg from ruptured follicle ovary cervix follicle vagina sperm 26 Ovulation to Implantation
Zygote undergoes mitosis travels down fallopian tube within 6-10 days. Zygote is ready to implant into uterus.
28 Ovulation to Implantation
Events in uterus
Implantation embryo implants/embeds into uterine lining secretes hormone HCG to signal its arrival
Cell Differentiation cells divide by mitosis become different due to gene expression. Different embryo parts will form.
Menstrual Cycle Animation
30 Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
Definition Disease spread from one person to another during sexual contact
Types of STDs gonorrhea chlamydia syphilis genital herpes HIV trichomonas
Reducing Risky Behavior
a. Avoid sexual contact
b. Avoid intravenous drug use
31 Child with gonorrheal infection in the eyes 32 Advanced syphilis 33 Genital herpes 34 Trichomonas Life Cycle 35 Birth control 36 Birth Control 37 Birth Control
PowerShow.com is a leading presentation/slideshow sharing website. Whether your application is business, how-to, education, medicine, school, church, sales, marketing, online training or just for fun, PowerShow.com is a great resource. And, best of all, most of its cool features are free and easy to use.
You can use PowerShow.com to find and download example online PowerPoint ppt presentations on just about any topic you can imagine so you can learn how to improve your own slides and presentations for free. Or use it to find and download high-quality how-to PowerPoint ppt presentations with illustrated or animated slides that will teach you how to do something new, also for free. Or use it to upload your own PowerPoint slides so you can share them with your teachers, class, students, bosses, employees, customers, potential investors or the world. Or use it to create really cool photo slideshows - with 2D and 3D transitions, animation, and your choice of music - that you can share with your Facebook friends or Google+ circles. That's all free as well!
For a small fee you can get the industry's best online privacy or publicly promote your presentations and slide shows with top rankings. But aside from that it's free. We'll even convert your presentations and slide shows into the universal Flash format with all their original multimedia glory, including animation, 2D and 3D transition effects, embedded music or other audio, or even video embedded in slides. All for free. Most of the presentations and slideshows on PowerShow.com are free to view, many are even free to download. (You can choose whether to allow people to download your original PowerPoint presentations and photo slideshows for a fee or free or not at all.) Check out PowerShow.com today - for FREE. There is truly something for everyone!